Llallawavis Scagliai – Most Recent Terror Bird Discovered

The new varieties of “terror bird” phorusrhacids identified as Llallawavis scagliai was located in Argentina and lived during the tumultuous times of the Pliocene era. Its rather complete skeleton shows that it was a “terror bird”, a meat-eating, flightless bird which could grow up 10 ft in height and had a limited vocal range with a low frequency.


Some of the flightless phorusrhacids that are known as fear birds, have represented one of the main predators discovered in the South America regions, prior of becoming extinct for various reasons more than 2 million years ago. The specialists who are studying them have now found one of the most complete skeletons of this historical bird species to date.

Paleontologists have discovered an essentially complete set of bones of this new species of phorusrhacids named as Llallawavis scagliai and it allowed them to research the creature’s complex biological structure in unmatched details, as perfectly as gain many more information about the bird known for a massive beak and preference for various types of meat.

The finding, which was revealed in the latest edition of the publication Vertebrate Paleontology, has a lot more than 75 % of its bones perfectly preserved, exposing the outstanding abilities of this aggressive bird and tagging the first time when biological components of the animal, including hearing organs have been rebuilt for this creature of terror. The specific discover may perhaps aid to offer description regarding the actions, progress and environment of this particular type of vanished species.

Paleontologists mentioned this new species, which lived in South America about 3 million years ago, in the Pliocene era, was 4 ft. high and had a scary overall look. In contrast to the birds that usually are living these days, this species of birds likely had a hearing capacity that, in all possibility, was under developed for its nervous system and the other vital parts.

Scientists say that these flightless birds, whose name indicates Scaglia’s Spectacular Bird, a tribute to one of the most famous naturalists from Argentina, Galileo Juan Scaglia, had a restricted variety of vocal sounds with low regularity. They bring the theory that this species of birds might as well have used low-frequency sounds in order to pinpoint its prey with rather good accuracy on that difficult terrain.

The poorly developed hearing approximated for this terror bird was under the common levels studied in today’s species of birds, as the scientists in Argentina have found out while examining the head’s bones from the well-preserved skeleton. This goes to indicate that Llallawavis might have possibly developed a filter in the low-vocalization range of frequency, probably used for intraspecific sound interaction or prey recognition.

Researchers rebuilt the framework of the inner ear of the creature with the help of modern 3D calculated X-ray tomography and discovered that the Llallawavis could have detected sounds in a wide range of about 3,800 Hz and with a sensitivity of approximately 2,300 Hz. Our human ear can identify sounds with wavelengths that can vary between 20 Hz and almost 20,000 Hz, indicating that the aggressive birds have been very good at listening the lower-frequency sounds in comparison with people.

The paleontologists who have studied the skeleton also mentioned that the finding of this species if very ancient birds revealed that such creatures of terror had been a lot more different during the long period of the Pliocene era than it was previously considered by the specialist all around the world. It also allowed scientists to assess the speculation concerning the decrease in number and eventually, the extinction of this amazing species of birds who have dominated the regions in South America for millions of years.

image source: www.dinosaurjungle.com

Top 4 Amazing Deep Sea Creatures Found until Now

We are all know what dolphins, sharks and whales look like; but what about the less famous deep sea creatures found down there, like giant squid, lizardfish or unusual types of eels? We discover so many animals deep in the ocean, creatures that we know too little about them, so it is a challenge to research and understand more such weird and scary beings.

fangtooth fish

1. Fangtooth Fish

On top of the list we find the fangtooth fish and it is one ugly looking predator. This species lives at very low depths and catches the prey by attracting it with bioluminescent organs known as photophores. In the dark abysses, all animals are lured to sources of glowing light emitted by these organs and when they are close, the fish can grab them with his large teeth.

lizardfish deep sea creatures

2. Deep-ocean Lizardfish

Another meat-eating sea creature is the prehistoric deep-ocean lizardfish. These exciting animals look like reptiles found in normal water. The mouth is protected with harpooned teeth that catch the food, just like fish hooks. The teeth are easy-to-open so they can be pressed down when they swallow the prey and stand up for attacks. The prey does not even need to be swallowed completely, since it gets caught easily among the sharp teeth. With the radiant yellow-colored eyes, the lizardfish can be the weirdest creature for many.

blind-eel-deep sea creatures

3. Blind Eel

Often known as weird and creepy deep sea creatures, the blind eels are next on this list. They were believed to be sightless because they have such little eyes. They feed on both live and dead seafood that can be identified through a strong smell. They have round lips that they use to pull on the prey and a tooth-studded tongue that allows cutting through the skin and basically consuming it from the inside. It is also known as slime eel because the epidermis produces sticky slimes, these being used for suffocating the attackers by blocking their gills.

giant squid

4. The Giant Squid

The last on our list is one of the mysterious and scary deep sea creatures, the giant squid, and it has been the topic of countless stories for hundreds of years. Until lately, however, these stories were treated as simple fragments of imagination. The only real facts we have on them are from discovering parts of the squids in the bellies of sperm whales, and those that have been found on coasts after a tsunami.

Another place where their appearance is obvious can be found on the skin of whales where massive marks are seen, following the terrifying fights between these two giant creatures. These squids will grow to the dimensions of a bus or even larger. They are meat-eating animals and have torpedo bodies. At one end, around a beak-like mouth with jaws and muscles powerful enough to go through metal wires, are 10 arms. Two of them, slimmer and longer, are used to capture its food and carry it to the mouth. Near the mouth there are located the largest eyes of all animals, growing as large as 18“wide. They are extremely difficult be caught alive on images or videos because they reside in very deep underwater.

It is exciting to think about the other kinds of dangerous and amazing sea creatures are in the ocean that we have not yet found. What amazing things does the abyss keep from us and will we ever discover it? With today’s newly technological innovation we are regularly looking for new methods to research the ocean bottom and the chance of finding rare species becomes closer every day. Since we believe that we have seen it all, the unknown waters still offer us something cool and new each time.

Source: nationalgeographic.com

10 Of The Most Beautiful Horse Breeds On Earth

Horses, are among the most beautiful and most beloved animals on the planet. There is something about their beauty that is breath taking and mysterious at the same time.

Humans have domesticated horses for thousands of years, and today we have managed to take part in the development of some astonishing breeds. Here is a list of 10 of the most beautiful horse breeds on Earth.

# 10.  Dalmatian Horse


The Dalmatian horse also known as the British Spotted pony, is a very rare breed with under 200 horses being born in the UK every year. For many years it has been believed that this was a newly developed breed of horse, but presently it is assumed that these beautiful creatures have been around for most probably up to 25,000 years.

# 9. Mustang Horse


The Mustang is a wild horse living in the west of North America, and it is a descendant of the horses that were first brought on the American continent by the Spanish people. Mustangs are also called wild horses, but that matter remains debatable. Since they have developed from horses that were once domesticated, they can be referred to as feral horses.

# 8. Marwari Horse


The Marwari is a breed that is known for its guts, and is another rare breed of horses coming from India. Its is also famous for its ear tips that turn towards the inner part. This breed comes in many colors, however the most common of all tend to be the most searched among buyers and breeders.

 # 7.Friesian Horse

The Friesian originates from the Netherlands, more precisely from the region of Friesland. For their size, these horses are very agile and graceful. In the Middle Ages, the Friesian horses were in high demand, as they were used as war horses on the European continent. Thanks to their size and strength, during the Middle Ages, this breed could carry a knight in his armor.

# 6. Haflinger Horse


The Haflinger, with its other known name, the Avelignese, is a horse breed that has been grown in the north of Italy and Austria. A Haflinger horse is quite small in size, their color is always chestnut, and have a special gallop which has been described as full of energy but smooth at the same time, and their muscles are well defined but elegantly.

# 5. Andalusian Horse

This is called the Pure Spanish Horse, and is a breed coming from the Iberian Peninsula. The Andalusian horse, has been known for its existence since the 15th century. Along the history, this horse breed has been used as a war animal, due to its strength and power and was very popular among the nobility.

# 4. Gypsy Horse

This gorgeous horse breed is recognized after its bountiful leg feathering and for its beautiful black and white combination of its coat. However, it can also be seen in any other color also.

# 3. Morgan Horse

The Morgan horse is among the very first horse breeds that have been created in the United States. Its a very solid and elegant breed, which can be found mostly in the color black, bay or chestnut, but there are also other colors, including different shades of pinto. It is a breed that is famous for its versatility.

# 2. Arabian Horse

The Arabian horse could be one of the most easy to recognize horse breeds in the world, due to its special head shape and the way it carries its tail. Also, this is one of the oldest horse breeds on the planet. Along the centuries, Arabian horses have been spread in all the regions of the world, mainly because of the war and commercial trades and helped to improve other horse breeds with their qualities, like elegance, speed, strong bones and high levels of endurance.

# 1. Akhal-Teke

This horse right here, has been named the most beautiful horse in the world, or the “supermodel horse”, because of the finesse of its physical appearance. It is indeed a beauty that catches your eye. The Akhal Teke has a notoriety for high speed and endurance, they are considered to be very intelligent.

They come in several colors, but the colors that make the sheen of their coat pop out the best are perlino, palomino and cremello.

The shimmering effect of their coat is generated by their hair structure, as the opaque core is minimized and in certain areas of their body, it lacks completely. So, in those areas it is more present the transparent part of the hair which bends light on one side of the hair and refracts its on the other side, usually with a golden sheen.

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16 Astonishing Facts about Tigers

The largest members of the cat family and also the most powerful, tigers are some of the most feared predators and yet, some of the cutest felines. Some facts about tigers are hard to believe.

No wonder brave people end up sometimes adopting tamed cubs as pets. Here’s a list of amazing, fun, weird or unusual facts you may or may not know about tigers:


  1. Tigers have got the power! And are not afraid to use it. They can easily kill animals twice their size, not to mention humans who happen to invade their territory.
  2. They have large, extremely sharp teeth which they rely on for feeding and wrestling. When they love their canines, tigers are prone to starving to death as they can no longer kill or defend themselves.
  3. Tigers have a nose as sensitive as perfume creators do and can detect the scent of prey from many miles. They will travel long distances guided only by smell to kill other animals.
  4. Tigers have quite an appetite. A Bengal tiger will eat 21 kg of meat in a night and is susceptible to kill the equivalent of up to 10 buffaloes per semester.
  5. The stripes on each tiger’s backs are unique. Just like fingerprints.
  6. Tigers are solitary creatures, and rarely kill in groups, but when this happens, they show a courtesy lions don’t, letting the females and cubs to feed first.
  7. They are violently loud! A roaring tiger can be heard from a distance of 2km at night.
  8. Baby tigers depend on their mother to survive. Usually, a female tiger can give birth to as many as seven cubs. However, as she must leave them alone during the hunt, survival of the fittest comes in.
  9. The Siberian (or the amur) tiger has the lightest shade of fur of all tiger subspecies, sporting a pale to white hair and brown stripes. They are also faster, more skilled and often blend in the snow in order to attack prey. They are the largest and most dangerous of all tigers.
  10. Tigers are incredibly skilled in telling the age, gender, and reproductive condition of other tigers. They mark their territories with urine and can determine detailed information about their peers through the scent.
  11. They save their meals for later. When a big kill emerges, they might as well bury the remains under a bush or in a safe place and later come back to feed again.
  12. They purr. They can be incredibly cute, just like cats, and manifest affection towards each other, especially in families or with a kid cub.
  13. Tigers are elegant creatures, and mostly, creatures of comfort. They like to bathe in the sun, play with their cubs, roll on their backs when content and bathe. Unlike cats, they are proficient swimmers. They enjoy water in summer and often go for a swim or a chill in lakes.
  14. Tigers are meant to be free and live in their natural habitat. Sadly, even though they are endangered in some parts of the globe, they are still caged and used for mindless entertainment in travelling circuses.
  15. Some tiger species have been extinct as late as the 20th The Thylacine, or Tasmanian tiger, was a fierce apex predator resembling both a tiger and a wolf, and populated continental Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea until it was hunted down up to the point of disappearance.
  16. The Sumatran tiger is the second most endangered subspecies. Excessive poaching and the decline of these big cats’ natural habitat lowered their currently existing number to a rough 500.

This concludes our list of astonishing facts about tigers. What do you think?

Photo: miaminewtimes.com

Most Critically Endangered Animal Species On The Planet


The list of endangered species has not turned smaller, rather has enlarged. Most critically endangered animal species on the planet are on the verge of disappearing completely.

One of the most critically endangered species of the world is the ivory billed woodpecker, which can or could be found in the southeastern region of the US and as well in Cuba. This large woodpecker was considered extinct until 2004, when many people reported to to have spotted the bird in Arkansas and Florida. However the existence of the ivory bill still remained questionable and if a bird population were to exist most likely is very small and highly vulnerable. The main cause for the disappearance of the ivory billed woodpecker it is due to the its habitat loss but also because of the exploitation of humans, as the bird was hunted for its feathers.


Another endangered and very rare species is the Amur leopard (Panthera padres orientalist), which is an extremely rare subspecies of leopards that lives only in the isolated and snowy parts of the northern forests of east of Russia’s Primorye area. It used to be found in Korea and the north of China, but the Amur leopard has completely disappeared from those countries.

In 2007 there have been counted only between 14 to 20 adults and 5/6 cubs. What is provoking the extinction of this animal is the habitat loss caused by logging, road building, and trespassing of civilisation but as well the illegal huntings and changing climate happening on the planet.

The Javan rhinoceros scientifically known as Rhinoceros sondaicus, is among the five most endangered rhinoceros species of the world. There have remained only between 40 to 60 animals living in the Ujung Kulon National Park, located on the western area of the Indonesian Island of Java.
The last animal belonging to another small population in the Cat Tien National Park from Vietnam, was killed in 2011 by poachers.The Javan rhinoceros has been hunted for its horn, used to make Asian traditional medicine. Even though now it is under protection, its population might not be large enough from preventing the species from extinction.


There are around 100 species of lemurs living on the planet, and all of them live on the southeastern coast of Africa, on the Isle of Madagascar. Practically their population is declining rapidly main reasons being again, human activities and poaching. Many species of lemur have been listed as endangered or critically endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

So far on top of the list has been the greater bamboo lemur, with less than 100 animals remaining, but most recently its place has been taken by the sportive lemurs, with less than 20 individuals remaining in the wild. This species lives only around the surroundings of one small mountain found on the northern part of Madagascar. This species of lemur is very small with a weight of around two pounds or less. It has very large eyes for better vision at night.


Out of all the world whale species, the most endangered one is the northern right whale with around 350 animals left, which travel the Atlantic coasts of the U.S. and Canada. During the whale hunting taking place in the 19th century, the mammal received its name as it was considered the “right” whale to hunt, as it has plenty of whale oil and was floating after its death which made it very easy to capture and process.

This lead to the extinction of the species. The right whale is now under wildlife protection but its small remaining population keeps diminishing due to getting trapped in fishing nets. If they get trapped in the nest, whales drown as they can no longer reach surface and breathe. The warming of the planet could affect the population of the small crustaceans which serve as food for right whales, and this could be another threat for the continuity of this species.

South China tigers(Panthera tigris amoyensis) are found in the smallest amount of all the tiger subspecies and have reached a critical level of extinction. It is not known the exact number of the remaining animals but is believed to be around 20 tigers. Some would state that this estimate is to high and that the South China tiger does no longer exist in the wild. Statement which could be true, as no tiger has been seen in the wild for the past 20 years.

The South China tiger is original from the provinces Fujian, Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, from the south of China. The remaining tigers on the planet, under 100 individuals, can be found exclusively in Chinese zoos. The South China tiger was classified as a critically endangered species.


Another endangered species is the bluefin tuna, has been on the endangered list for several years and is the main fish Japanese sushi lovers eat. This species of fish has suffered a terrible decline in the north of the Pacific Ocean, over 96% of the population has disappeared. What is concerning is the fact that around 90% of the caught fish were young fish which didn’t arrive yet to reproduce, meaning they might have been the last generation of bluefin tuna.

bluefin tuna

The endangered species list continues with the grey wolf, which has been readied to the list of endangered species after being removed in 2012. Since their federal protection was removed there have been killed over 1,500 Great Lakes Wolves. The new law bans the hunting and trapping of wolves in Minnesota, Michigan and Wisconsin.

Image Source: the smoking gun, Daily Mail, Biodiversity Warriors, animal-kid, performancemultisports.com, The Tiger Domain, mother nature network, Daemons and analyses