8 Scientific Experiments Conducted on Animals (Part II)

Here’s the second part of our 8 scientific experiments conducted on animals. The sad thing is that these are the ones we know of, but they unfortunately go on every day, in the name of science, or of the cosmetic industry. So let’s recommence our animal torture list with a classical case.

# 4. Pavlov’s dog

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This famous experiment made the concept of the conditioned reflex widespread. Ivan Pavlov, back in 1901, examined the rate of salivation among dogs when presented with food. He noticed the dogs would salivate upon seeing their food, so he began ringing a bell every time the food was presented to the dogs. Over time, the dogs began to associate the ringing of the bell with food and would salivate instantly when hearing the bell, demonstrating that reflexes can indeed be learned. This wasn’t so bad, was it?

# 5. Harlow’s monkeys

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In the 1950s, Harry Harlow of the University of Wisconsin tested infant dependency towards their mother’s affection, using monkeys. The newly born monkey was removed from its actual mother that was replaced with two other “mothers,” one made of cloth and one made of wire. The first “mother” served no purpose other than its comforting feel whereas the wire “mother” fed the monkey through a bottle. The monkey spent the most of his day next to the cloth fluffy “mother” and only around one hour a day next to the wire “mother,” despite the fact that the wire model was constantly providing food.

 

# 6. Elephants on acid

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On Friday August 3, 1962, a group of Oklahoma City researchers decided to find out how elephants would react when given LSD.

So they fired a cartridge-syringe containing 297 milligrams of LSD into Tusko the Elephant’s rump. That’s definitely a lot of LSD, about 3000 times the level of a typical human dose. This is officially the largest dose of LSD ever given to a living creature. Tusko trumpeted around his pen for a few minutes, and then keeled over on his side. Horrified, the researchers tried to revive him, but about an hour later he was dead. Total failure!

But this didn’t stop here. It appears that twenty years later, Ronald Siegel of UCLA decided to find out what had happened to Tusko, and gave two elephants a dose similar to what Tusko had received. However the drug wasn’t injected, by put into their water supply instead. The elephants not only survived but also didn’t seem too upset at all. They acted childishly, rocked back and forth, and made some strange vocalizations, but within a few hours they were back to normal.

# 7. Demikhov’s Two-Headed Dogs

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It seems Russians have a thing for dog heads. In 1954 Vladimir Demikhov presented his griffin: a two-headed dog. He created the dragon creature in a lab on the outskirts of Moscow by taking the head, shoulders, and front legs of a puppy onto the neck of a mature German shepherd. He boasted about his invention in front of the whole world. During the following 15 years, he created a total of 20 two-headed dogs. None of them lived very long, as they inevitably succumbed to problems of tissue rejection. Nevertheless they seemed to function normally at start. Both heads would eat simultaneously from different bowls, the food ingested being canned in the only stomach of the griffin.

# 8. The Remote-Controlled Bull

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Meanwhile in Cordova, Spain, Yale researcher Jose Delgado implanted a stimoceiver in a bull’s brain. It was a computer chip, operated by a remote-control unit, which could be used to stimulate different regions of the animal’s brain. These impulses could produce a wide variety of effects, such as the involuntary movement of limbs, the production of emotions such as love or rage, or the inhibition of appetite. It could also be used, as Delgado showed, to stop a charging bull.

The list definitely goes on. However sad these may have made you feel, let’s start appreciating animals more, as our scientific progress pioneers throughout the history of mankind.

8 Scientific Experiments Conducted on Animals (Part I)

8 Psychological Experiments Conducted on AnimalsHumans have learned a lot using all sorts of physical or psychological experiments. Nevertheless when their curiosity couldn’t be satisfied using human beings, they passed on to animals. Here they are: 8 scientific experiments conducted on animals, most of which went awfully wrong.

# 1. The isolated head of a dog

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In the late 1920s Soviet physician Sergei Brukhonenko wanted to satisfy his curiosity regarding a detached head’s possibility of remaining alive without an actual body attached to it. So he took a dog’s head, and parallel to that he developed a primitive heart-lung machine, called an “autojector,” and with this device he succeeded in keeping the head of a dog alive. He showed his deed in 1928 to scientists at the Third Congress of Physiologists of the USSR. In order to remove all doubt regarding his success, he showed that it reacted to stimuli. Brukhonenko banged a hammer on the table, and the dog head flinched. He immersed light in its eyes, and the dog’s eyes blinked. He even fed it a piece of cheese, which immediately popped out the esophageal tube on the other end. How cynical can one person be?

# 2. Seeing through a cat’s eyes

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This ia 1999 attempt to see the world through another creature’s eyes, in our case, a cat. The animal was anesthetized and chemically paralyzed and secured in a surgical frame. After that Dr. Yang Dan of the University of California, Berkeley, glued metal posts to the whites of its eyes, and forced it to look a screen that showed scene after scene of swaying trees and men wearing turtlenecks. Moreover the researchers had also inserted fiber electrodes into the vision-processing center of the cat’s brain. They measured the electrical activity of the brain cells and transmitted this information to a nearby computer that decoded the information and transformed it into a visual image. As the cat watched the images of the trees and the turtleneck-wearing guy, the same images emerged, yet slightly blurrier, on the computer screen across the room. The poor cat! I wonder if she ever survived this experiment…

# 3.  Shock the puppy

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This is an animal response to Milgrim’s experiment. For those of you who don’t know, Stanley Milgram, a social psychologist at Yale University, wanted to test obedience to authority. He set up an experiment with teachers, who were the actual participants, and learners, who were actors. Both categories knew the study was about memory and learning. Things were arranged so that the actual participants took the role of the teacher. The two were moved into separate rooms and the teacher was given instructions as to press a button to shock the learner each time an incorrect answer was provided. These shocks would increase in voltage each time. Eventually, the actor would start to complain followed by more and more desperate screaming. Only 14 out of 40 teachers halted the experiment before administering a 450-volt shock, though every participant questioned the experiment, and no teacher firmly refused to stop the shocks before 300 volts.

Anyway, imagine this same experiment, but with fluffy puppies instead of the human learners. Charles Sheridan and Richard King theorized that perhaps Milgram’s subjects had merely played along with the experiment because they realized the victim was faking his cries of pain. But with the puppy, everything was real: its part and the shocks. As the voltage increased, the puppy first barked, then jumped up and down, and finally started howling with pain. The volunteers were horrified. They became restless, hyperventilated, and started gesturing with their hands to show the puppy where to stand. Many cried, but the majority of them, 20 out of 26, kept pushing the shock button right up to the maximum voltage. We are bad little creatures, aren’t we?

6 Pieces of Advice for Rookie Tourists Visiting Georgia

For those of you who have never really heard of it, Georgia is a beautiful remote country located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe. It is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of Georgia is Tbilisi. Travelling there can turn out to be a magical experience. Discovering a totally different world, with deep Communist scars skillfully blended with really old churches and breathtaking views, here are 6 pieces of advice for rookie tourists visiting Georgia.

1. Don’t get yourself involved in drinking contests with the Georgians.

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There’s no doubt about the fact that they’ll get you under the table – this is a euphemism for they will get you extremely drunk. The only people who can enter drinking contests with them are probably the Russians. Moreover they seem to have some strange alcohol related habits, such as giving toasts all night long or drinking from some kind of sharp cones.

2. If you’ve recently been to Abhazia, consider visiting Georgia another time.

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Abhazia shares the same territory, but considers itself an independent state, despite the fact that The Georgian government and the majority of the world’s governments consider it a part of Georgia’s territory, though Georgia is not in control of it. This region is located on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the southwestern flank of the Caucasus. Should the Georgians catch you coming from the adversary’s territory you’ll probably end up in jail. They have laws that specify this exact detail.

3. Don’t kiss in front of churches.

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This behavior is considered offensive by inhabitants who are generally speaking pretty religious. They might even beat you up in the name of Orthodoxy.  Traditional behavior is highly respected in these parts of the world. I wonder how they deal with this problem during a wedding.

4. Don’t use your clothes for seaside wear when you visit a church.

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Don’t wear your beach dress or beach pants if you want to visit a church; any church. This would automatically be interpreted as defiance and senselessness. Some of their churches are over 1,000 years old and considered sacred places. You might find someone in front of a church who would lend you a scarf, but don’t push your luck.

5. Georgian drivers are a special type of driver.

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Georgian drivers appear not to have a license. They follow no rules and have no fear. They just seem to know where they want to get and do whatever it takes to get there, missing the fact that the road is not theirs alone. So don’t mess with them and take a defensive driving course before hitting their roads. It may come in as useful; although it’s unlikely you’ll learn anything about anticipating a cow’s next move in traffic. No one knows why, but cows are a big deal in Georgia.

6. The public roads are full of cows that wonder freely, as well as a strange type of pig wearing a strange triangle-shaped yoke around their necks.

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These animals are definitely suicidal, but the sad thing is that because of their quite impressive measures, they are the number one public menace of the country. At least from a humble outsider’s point of view.

8-1 Stairways to Heaven

Stairs have a particular vibe. There’s something about where they lead to, or what they connect, or just how they appear. Stairs are cool, indeed. We simply love them. So here they are: 8-1 stairways to Heaven from around the world.

Some of them are nature-built, some of them are man-made, but they simply represent a symbol of both nature’s friendly invites, as well as man’s incredible conquest abilities.

#1. Scala (Rainbow Staircase), Wuppertal, Germany

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Artist Horst Gläsker took a dull staircase built in between two buildings in the town of Wuppertal and turned it into a rainbow of colors, transforming an eyesore into a bright, energetic spot. He named the 112-step artwork Scala, which stands for “staircase” in Italian, and enhanced it with stencils of German words that refer to human relationship manifestations, such as love, sympathy, and dance.

# 2. Las Pozas, Xilitla, Mexico

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Built by non-conformist English poet Edward James in 1962, this is actually a surrealist garden sculpture that took more than two decades to complete and covers 80-plus acres of Mexican jungle. This modern structure, called Stairway to the Sky, it’s actually a winding staircase one can climb up, but it leads nowhere.

# 3. Escadaria Selarón, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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This is a sheer example of Latin vividness. Chilean-born artist Jorge Selarón, who began renovating the destroyed steps in 1990 created the famous steps. Choosing to paint the stairs in the bright colors of blue, green and yellow, his simple task soon turned into his greatest artistic passion. The staircase has 250 steps and is covered in tiles collected from countries around the world. This piece of art runs from Rua Joaquim Silva and Rua Pinto Martins, and covers both the Lapa and Santa Teresa neighborhoods.

# 4. 16th Avenue Tiled Steps, San Francisco, CA

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This tile steps project was conceived and made by Irish ceramicist Aileen Barr and local San Francisco artist, Collette Crutcher. Having over 163 steps, the entire creation process took more than two and a half years to complete mostly because it required helpful actions from the local community to raise necessary funds. Their hard work eventually paid off, as the project was unveiled in August 2005. This public masterpiece is located at 16th Avenue and Moraga in the quiet neighborhood of Golden Gate Heights.

# 5. Heaven’s Gate Mountain, Zhangjiajie City, China

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Visitors to this mountain in China must first take a cable car that lifts them thousands of feet in the air or hop on an apparently dangerous bus ride that goes along a very narrow mountain road filled with countless twists and turns. Once the base of the gaping hole is reached, there are exactly 999 steps leading up to a temple. The latest touristic addition to the mountain is the “sky walk”, which allows tourists to look down at the massive hole below them through a clear glass floor.

# 6. Suspended Bridge over the Traversinertobel, Via Mala, Switzerland

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The Traversinertobel Bridge swings more than 200 feet above the valley of Via Mala. Designed by engineer and architect Jürg Conzett along with Rolf Bachofner, the Traversinertobel solved the question of how to connect two gorges with varying elevations. Before the modern staircase, hikers had to cross from one side to the other with a rope bridge that was destroyed during a rockslide. This suspended footbridge spans a distance of 2,214 inches, with a difference in height of 867 inches between the two ends.

# 7. Taihang Mountains, provinces of Shanxi and Henan, China

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This spiral staircase is about 3.937 inch high, and was recently installed in an attempt to attract tourists to the beautiful Taihang Mountains. Before making the ascent, visitors are asked to sign forms to ensure they do not have heart or lung problems, and are under age 60. And a slip on the narrow metal ladder can certainly lead to disaster.

# 8-1. Staircase to Nowhere, Winchester Mystery House, San Jose, CA

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Let’s finish with the creepiest one of them all, a wooden staircase that also leads nowhere, but due to strange reasons. Haunted by spirits, widow Sarah Winchester apparently built a beautiful Victorian mansion that has a lot of strange elements, but the most curious may be the staircase that dead-ends in the ceiling. Some speculate that Mrs. Winchester chose this baffling design to confuse evil spirits and throw them off her track.

5 Unusual Snowmen Approaches

Olaf represents innocent love1Well, what can one think of in the middle of summer? Ice cold drinks, lonely beaches, surfing, tanning? Not really, as this post is going to be all about snowmen. Snowmen in the middle of summer are a great reminder of the days when one can only survive dressed up in multiple layers. This seems so far away right now; nevertheless, a quick chat on 5 unusual snowmen approaches that can definitely be a sip of fresh cold air.

The most famous snowman nowadays has to be Olaf, from Frozen. But Olaf stands for innocent love, not to mention that fact that he’s one-year old. So let’s take care of the veterans, shall we?

 1. The first recorded snowmen

One of the inspirations for this article comes from Bob Eckstein’s book, The history of the snowman. The first recording ever of a snowman comes from an illuminated manuscript dated 1380, that can now be found in the Royal Library at The Hague. The manuscript includes a grotesque cartoon snowman alongside a solemn passage about Jesus Christ. This is par excellence the earliest known drawing of a snowman and it has been interpreted as an anti-Semitic representation of a Jew being melted by fire. Sorry about that!

Moreover, according to Eckstein, the first recorded indecent snowmen and snow-women were created back in 1511, when the residents of Brussels, in a fit of anti-establishment anger, filled the city streets with hundreds of pornographic and political snow sculptures.

As far as Italy is concerned, a heavy snowstorm apparently hit Florence in 1494. The city’s ruler of that time, Giovanni di Lorenzo di Piero de Medici, asked a teenage friend to build a snowman in the palace courtyard. The 18-year-old was forced to create a snow sculpture that observers reckoned as the most beautiful snowman that had ever been made. The young sculptor was none other than Michelangelo.

Eckstein’s book describes a snowman calamity in North America during the 1689–1697 war between England and France. On February 8, 1690, while 25 militiamen were on duty in Schenectady, New York State, protecting 150 civilian inhabitants, the weather was so cold that the village gates had frozen open. But the sentries did not believe anyone could be out and about on such a night and so went off to warm themselves, leaving two rifle-wielding snowmen on guard.

Unfortunately the “snow patrol” didn’t fool a 200- party of French Canadian soldiers and Native Americans, who silently passed through the gates, robbed and burned the village, killing 60 villagers and taking 27 prisoners with them.

3. Snowmen in horror states

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Unfortunately, sweet old snowmen have appeared in several horror stories as Yeti. No matter if this means their playing in Yeti: Curse of the Snow Demon, featuring a killer Yeti and a football team involved in a plane crash trying to survive in the Himalayas.

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Yeti is a Pixar star as well, starring in Monsters Inc. and having John Ratzenberger doing its voice. That’s definitely a cool one.

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How about Hugo from The Abominable Snow Rabbit in Chuck Jones’ run of The Looney Tunes? That’s a classical to remember.

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And last, but not least, let’s not forget Scooby-Doo and his horror adventures. During their never-ending encounters with all sorts of monsters, Yeti just had to be one of them. The first time was in 1970 in That’s Snow Ghost, and then again in the far more recent, direct-to-video, Chill Out, Scooby Doo.

 4. Snowmen in Art

Here are some paintings by US artist Graham Dale. The images speak for themselves J

5. Snowmen in your Back Yard

I found the cosiest homemade pictures of friendly snowmen here and here, should you be interested in how the Japanese build their own.